Operational Mobile Reaction Group
GROM (Polish: Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno-Manewrowego "Operational Mobile Reaction Group"; the acronym itself means "thunder") is a Special Forces unit of the Polish Army. It was formed on July 13, 1990. It is used in a variety of special operations including Anti-Terrorist actions and projection of power in the rear of enemy lines. The full name in Polish is Wojskowa Formacja Specjalna GROM im. Cichociemnych Spadochroniarzy Armii Krajowej (Special Military Formation GROM of the Cichociemni parachutists of Armia Krajowa), though it is rarely used. The acronym GROM is also related to the name of general Gromosław Czempiński, who among other actions, managed to evacuate a number of American agents from Iraq shortly before Operation Desert Storm. In Polish Army nomenclature it is called JW 2305 (JW stands for Jednostka Wojskowa—Military Unit). Early history In the 1970s and 1980s there were several Special Forces formations, but were either trained in typically military tasks (sabotage, disruption of communications and such) or in Anti-Terrorist actions. After the Polish embassy in Bern was captured by terrorists in 1982, General Edwin Rozłubirski proposed that a military unit specialising in fast response to all possible threats, be created. However, the proposal was initially refused. In 1989 many Jews were allowed to leave the Soviet Union for Israel. For fear of Islamic terrorists who opposed increased immigration to Israel, most western European countries did not assist in the transport of civilians. Poland was one of the handful of countries to provide aid in the organisation of this operation, later nicknamed Operation Most. After two Polish diplomats were shot in Beirut, Lt. Col. Sławomir Petelicki was sent to Lebanon to secure the transfer of civilians and the Polish diplomatic outposts. After his return to Poland, he presented a plan for the creation of a special military force to the Ministry of Defence; a force that would be trained in defending Polish citizens in similar situations. The idea was accepted and on July 13, 1990, the JW 2305 unit was created. Commanders * Brigadier General Sławomir Petelicki (July 13, 1990–December 19, 1995) * Brigadier General Marian Sowiński (December 19, 1995–December 6, 1997) * Brigadier General Sławomir Petelicki (December 7, 1997–September 17, 1999) * Colonel Zdzisław Żurawski (September 17, 1999–May 26, 2000) * Colonel Roman Polko (May 26, 2000–February 11, 2004) * Colonel Tadeusz Sapierzyński (February 11, 2004– February 23, 2006) * Brigadier General Roman Polko (February 23, 2006–) Organisation Sławomir Petelicki was chosen as the first commander of the newly-formed unit. As an officer specialising in reconnaissance, sabotage and diversion, he seemed perfectly suited for creation of such a formation. He gathered around himself a group of professional officers and set about choosing soldiers that would be fit for special operations. Due to the risks involved in special service, it was decided that all men should be professional soldiers. The first group of recruits came from a variety of already-existent special units. Among others these were: * 1st Independent Special Battalion from Lubliniec (1. Samodzielny Batalion Specjalny) * Special units of various divisions * 6th Aeromobile Brigade (6. Brygada Desantowo-Szturmowa) * Polish Navy divers * Anti-terrorist units of the police * Mechanised Warfare School in Wrocław * Reconnaissance units of various divisions Out of the possible recruits, only a small group passed the training based on SAS experiences and the psychological tests. Many of the instructors were trained by the Special Forces of the United Kingdom and the USA. Currently GROM is co-operating with the most similar units of NATO: * Special Air Service * Special Boat Service * Green Berets * Delta Force * GSG 9 * KSK * Navy Seals * BBE For the first several years the unit remained completely secret. It was first reported to the press in 1992 and became known to the public in 1994, after their first major military operation in Haiti. Before 1 October 1999, GROM was subordinate to the Polish Ministry of Interior, after which command was transferred to the military. Training Candidates applying to serve in the GROM have to pass psychological and durability tests and the so called truth test; a physically and psychologically exhausting field test designed to filter out the weakest applicants. GROM soldiers train with the best special forces units in the world. As specialists, they are ranked with the likes of United States Navy SEALs, Delta Force or the SAS. The training of GROM soldiers includes a variety of disciplines. All of them undergo specialised training in Anti-Terrorism and Special Operations, as well as scuba diving, sniping and parachuting. In four-man teams, each soldier must be prepared to assume the respective responsibilities of his colleagues, should it become necessary. Approximately 75% of the soldiers are trained as medics or paramedics. In addition, each group is supported by several professional physicians. It is assumed that all GROM operators are proficient in at least two foreign languages. Unlike Special Forces subordinate to the police, GROM is trained primarily in the elimination of terrorists rather than capture.